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Glossar


A Ä B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Ö P Q R S T U Ü V W X Y Z

A

AMR
Antimicrobial resistance, the ability of bacteria to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are not killed, and may continue to multiply, when a patient is treated with an antibiotic to which the bacteria are resistant. Also known as antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotic
A drug that kills or stops the growth of bacteria. Examples include penicillin and ciprofloxacin.
ARB
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria
ARG, ARGs
Antimicrobial resistance genes
AST
AST, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, laboratory testing performed on bacteria to find out if they are resistant to one or more antibiotics. Also known as antibiotic resistance testing.

C

CARe
Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
CPE
CPE, Carbapenem-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Also known as Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
CRE
CRE, Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Also known as Carbapenem-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

D

DE
Germany
DLR
German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt)
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Drug class
Antibiotics are categorized into classes of drugs. Each class is defined by the way it kills or stops the growth of bacteria. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes use drug classes to categorize antibiotics.

E

ESBL
ESBL, Extended spectrum beta-lactamases are a type of enzymatic protein produced by some bacteria. ESBL enzymes cause antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to treat infections by ESBL bacteria.
EU
European Union

H

HAV
Hepatitis-A Virus
HEV
Hepatitis-E Virus

I

ICUB
Research Institute of the University of Bucharest, Romania
Isolates
Bacteria isolated from a specimen (e.g., stool, blood, food).

L

LMU
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, University of Munich, Germany

M

MDR
MDR, Multidrug-resistant, Refers to being resistant to more than one drug class.
MRSA
MRSA is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a type of bacteria that is resistant to several antibiotics.

N

NL
The Netherlands

O

OR, Odds Ratio, Odds Ratios
An odds ratio (OR) is a measure of association between an exposure and an outcome.

P

PCR
Polymerase Chain Reaction, a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

Q

qPCR
Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction

R

RIVM
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (the Netherlands)
RO
Romania

S

SE
Sweden
Specimen
A sample collected for laboratory testing. During outbreak investigations, samples may be collected from the blood, stool, or another location of a human or animal, and from food and the environment.
Susceptible isolate, !susceptible, !isolate
An isolate that is not resistant to any of the antibiotics tested.

U

UB
University of Bucharest, Romania
UGOT
University of Gothenburg, Sweden

W

WHO, !who
World Health Organization
WP
Work package
WWTP, WWTPs
Wastewater Treatment Plant, a plant to treat wastewater to get clean water.